Robotic-assisted surgery is an advancement of the field of minimally invasive endoscopic surgery. Compared with invasive open surgeries, endoscopy enables surgeons to operate through small incisions using a camera to view the surgical site on a video monitor. Unlike traditional endoscopic...

Interventional cardiology is the medical subspecialty of cardiology that “uses specialized imaging and other diagnostic techniques to evaluate blood flow and pressure in the coronary arteries and chambers of the heart and uses technical procedures and medications to treat abnormalities that...

According to the American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP), family medicine is the medical specialty that provides continuing, comprehensive healthcare for individuals and families. It integrates biological, clinical, and behavioral sciences. The scope of family medicine is broad and...

A general surgeon has principal expertise in the diagnosis and care of patients with diseases and disorders affecting the abdomen, digestive tract, endocrine system, breast, skin, and blood vessels, according to the American Board of Medical Specialties (ABMS). Additionally, general surgeons are...

Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is an ultrasound technique that uses sound waves to visualize the cardiovascular system. The procedure uses a flexible tube with an imaging transducer, guided down a patient’s throat, to produce real-time images of the heart in action. In essence, a TEE...

Obstetrics and gynecology (OB-GYN) is the medical specialty that involves the treatment of clinical conditions that are specific to women. Obstetricians diagnose and manage all conditions occurring during pregnancy, from the time of conception through the postpartum period. Gynecologists provide...

Cardiovascular disease, or cardiology, is the subspecialty of internal medicine that focuses on finding, treating, and preventing diseases of the heart and blood vessels—also known as the cardiovascular system. Cardiologists manage complex cardiac conditions such as heart attacks and abnormal...

Vascular neurology is the medical subspecialty of neurology that involves the evaluation and treatment of vascular events affecting the brain or spinal cord, including ischemic stroke, intracranial hemorrhage, spinal cord ischemia, and spinal cord hemorrhage.

Neurotology is the American Board of Medical Specialties–recognized subspecialty of otolaryngology that involves the diagnosis and management of disorders of the temporal bone, lateral skull base, and related structures of the head and neck. Neurotologists are certified otolaryngologist-head and...

Neonatal-perinatal medicine is the subspecialty of pediatrics that involves the diagnosis and treatment of high-risk newborns. Neonatologists, the practitioners of neonatal-perinatalmedicine, are trained to identify high-risk pregnancies and are familiar with the methods used to evaluate fetal...

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