Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is an ultrasound technique that uses sound waves to visualize the cardiovascular system. The procedure uses a flexible tube with an imaging transducer, guided down a patient’s throat, to produce real-time images of the heart in action. In essence, a TEE...

Obstetrics and gynecology (OB-GYN) is the medical specialty that involves the treatment of clinical conditions that are specific to women. Obstetricians diagnose and manage all conditions occurring during pregnancy, from the time of conception through the postpartum period. Gynecologists provide...

Cardiovascular disease, or cardiology, is the subspecialty of internal medicine that focuses on finding, treating, and preventing diseases of the heart and blood vessels—also known as the cardiovascular system. Cardiologists manage complex cardiac conditions such as heart attacks and abnormal...

Vascular neurology is the medical subspecialty of neurology that involves the evaluation and treatment of vascular events affecting the brain or spinal cord, including ischemic stroke, intracranial hemorrhage, spinal cord ischemia, and spinal cord hemorrhage.

Neurotology is the American Board of Medical Specialties–recognized subspecialty of otolaryngology that involves the diagnosis and management of disorders of the temporal bone, lateral skull base, and related structures of the head and neck. Neurotologists are certified otolaryngologist-head and...

Neonatal-perinatal medicine is the subspecialty of pediatrics that involves the diagnosis and treatment of high-risk newborns. Neonatologists, the practitioners of neonatal-perinatalmedicine, are trained to identify high-risk pregnancies and are familiar with the methods used to evaluate fetal...

Nephrology is a subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of kidney and urinary system diseases, such as chronic kidney disease, kidney inflammation, and kidney cancer. Causes of kidney failure include diabetes mellitus and polycystic kidney disease. In...

Rheumatology is the subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of arthritis and other diseases of the joints, muscles, and bones. According to the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, rheumatic diseases—which typically cause...

Pediatric urology is the subspecialty of urology that is concerned with the diagnosis, management, and treatment of genitourinary and adrenal abnormalities and diseases in both males and females, from birth through adolescence.

Urology is the surgical specialty that focuses on diseases of the male and female urinary tract, as well as the male reproductive organs. Urologists are also referred to as genitourinary surgeons (the organs of reproduction and urination together are often referred to as the genitourinary tract...

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