Anesthesiology is the medical specialty dedicated to the relief of pain through the administration of anesthesia. Anesthesiologists specialize in anesthesia care, pain management, and critical care medicine. Their 12 to 14 years of education allows them to understand and treat the entire human...

According to the American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP), emergency medicine is the medical specialty concerned with diagnosing and treating unforeseen illness or injury. Emergency medicine practitioners provide clinical and administrative services to the healthcare delivery system,...

Vascular and interventional radiology is a subspecialty of diagnostic radiology that encompasses using minimally invasive image-guided procedures to diagnose and treat abnormalities and anomalies in nearly every organ system.

Robotic-assisted surgery is an advancement of the field of minimally invasive endoscopic surgery. Compared with invasive open surgeries, endoscopy enables surgeons to operate through small incisions using a camera to view the surgical site on a video monitor. Unlike traditional endoscopic...

Interventional cardiology is the medical subspecialty of cardiology that “uses specialized imaging and other diagnostic techniques to evaluate blood flow and pressure in the coronary arteries and chambers of the heart and uses technical procedures and medications to treat abnormalities that...

According to the American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP), family medicine is the medical specialty that provides continuing, comprehensive healthcare for individuals and families. It integrates biological, clinical, and behavioral sciences. The scope of family medicine is broad and...

A general surgeon has principal expertise in the diagnosis and care of patients with diseases and disorders affecting the abdomen, digestive tract, endocrine system, breast, skin, and blood vessels, according to the American Board of Medical Specialties (ABMS). Additionally, general surgeons are...

Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is an ultrasound technique that uses sound waves to visualize the cardiovascular system. The procedure uses a flexible tube with an imaging transducer, guided down a patient’s throat, to produce real-time images of the heart in action. In essence, a TEE...

Obstetrics and gynecology (OB-GYN) is the medical specialty that involves the treatment of clinical conditions that are specific to women. Obstetricians diagnose and manage all conditions occurring during pregnancy, from the time of conception through the postpartum period. Gynecologists provide...

Cardiovascular disease, or cardiology, is the subspecialty of internal medicine that focuses on finding, treating, and preventing diseases of the heart and blood vessels—also known as the cardiovascular system. Cardiologists manage complex cardiac conditions such as heart attacks and abnormal...

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