Sports medicine is a multidisciplinary subspecialty that focuses on the prevention, evaluation, diagnosis, and nonsurgical treatment of athletes and other physically active individuals. Generally, sports medicine physicians, also called sports medicine specialists, diagnose and provide...

A pediatric dermatologist specializes in diagnosing and treating children, including newborns and infants, who have diseases that affect the skin, hair, or nails, according to the American Academy of Dermatology (AAD). Such conditions affect children differently than they affect adults, and...

Chiropractic is a branch of healthcare that focuses primarily on the musculoskeletal and nervous systems. Doctors of chiropractic (DC), also known as chiropractors, most often treat neuromusculoskeletal complaints such as headaches, low back pain, joint pain, neck pain, and sciatica, which is...

Occupational therapists (OT) apply their specialized knowledge to support and facilitate independence in individuals who have lost fundamental skills due to disease or injury, or who are born with conditions that inhibit these functions. OTs offer strategies and education to help patients...

Respiratory therapists (RT), also known as respiratory care practitioners, care for patients with breathing or other cardiopulmonary disorders. Under the direction of licensed physicians who have special expertise in respiratory care, RTs perform the tests that aid in the diagnosis and...

Pediatric nephrologists specialize in the care of children with a number of health conditions associated with the kidneys, particularly those that require acute dialysis in an intensive care setting. According to the Council of Pediatric Subspecialties (CoPS), pediatric nephrologists are trained...

Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) infuses a fecal suspension from a healthy donor into the gastrointestinal tract of a patient. This procedure is used to treat recurrent Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) infection and has shown promise in treating other conditions. C. difficile causes...

Pediatric cardiology is a subspecialty of pediatrics focusing on the diagnosis and treatment of heart problems in infants, children, and young adults. According to the American Heart Association (AHA), pediatric cardiologists are physicians who have completed training in pediatrics with...

Surgical first assistants, as defined by the American College of Surgeons (ACS), are trained individuals who are capable of participating in operations and actively assist surgeons during operations. The surgical first assistant helps provide exposure and maintain hemostasis, and serves other...

 According to the National Association of Clinical Nurse Specialists (NACNS), a clinical nurse specialist (CNS) is an advanced practice registered nurse (APRN) who has graduate preparation (master’s or doctorate) in a specialized area of clinical practice. CNSs work in a variety of specialties...

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