Vascular neurology is the medical subspecialty of neurology that involves the evaluation and treatment of vascular events affecting the brain or spinal cord, including ischemic stroke, intracranial hemorrhage, spinal cord ischemia, and spinal cord hemorrhage.

Neurotology is the American Board of Medical Specialties–recognized subspecialty of otolaryngology that involves the diagnosis and management of disorders of the temporal bone, lateral skull base, and related structures of the head and neck. Neurotologists are certified otolaryngologist-head and...

Neonatal-perinatal medicine is the subspecialty of pediatrics that involves the diagnosis and treatment of high-risk newborns. Neonatologists, the practitioners of neonatal-perinatalmedicine, are trained to identify high-risk pregnancies and are familiar with the methods used to evaluate fetal...

Nephrology is a subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of kidney and urinary system diseases, such as chronic kidney disease, kidney inflammation, and kidney cancer. Causes of kidney failure include diabetes mellitus and polycystic kidney disease. In...

Rheumatology is the subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of arthritis and other diseases of the joints, muscles, and bones. According to the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, rheumatic diseases typically cause pain,...

Pediatric urology is the subspecialty of urology that is concerned with the diagnosis, management, and treatment of genitourinary and adrenal abnormalities and diseases in both males and females, from birth through adolescence.

Urology is the surgical specialty that focuses on diseases of the male and female urinary tract, as well as the male reproductive organs. Urologists are also referred to as genitourinary surgeons (the organs of reproduction and urination together are often referred to as the genitourinary tract...

Maternal and fetal medicine (MFM), also known as perinatology, is the subspecialty of OB/GYN that focuses on complicated pregnancies. According to the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine (SMFM), an MFM specialist requires advanced knowledge of the obstetrical, medical, genetic, and surgical...

According to the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology (ABPN), child neurologists specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of neurologic disorders of the neonatal period, infancy, early childhood, and adolescence. These physicians have a firm grasp of general neurology, which involves the...

Medical toxicology is a clinical subspecialty that focuses on the prevention, evaluation, treatment, and monitoring of injury and illness from exposures to drugs and chemicals, as well as biological and radiological agents. Medical toxicologists treat people for toxic substances ingested in food...

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